This document describes Sclera extensions for data cleaning.

Automatic Type Inference

Data sourced from web-services typically does not include the data types – everything from numbers to dates are available as strings. These string values need to be cast to appropriate data types before they can be used in further computations.

When the data types are known, the type-casting is can be hardcoded; but this is dangerous when the data format from an external service changes without notice.

When the data types are not known, as in the case of ad-hoc data access, the data types need to be inferred manually. This is not only error-prone, it also does not scale to data sets with large number of columns.

Sclera’s TYPEINFER operator automates the type inference and casting. It intelligently infers the type of the specified columns from the data (you can optionally provide hints on how many rows are enough), and casts the string values accordingly.

The syntax is as follows:

table_expression TYPEINFER [ ( [ target_columns ] [ NULLS ( null_values ) ] [ LIMIT limit ] ) ]

where:

  • table_expression is an arbitrary table expression
  • target_columns is a comma-separated list of columns in table_expression for which the type inference is to be done. If the type of any of these columns is not CHAR or VARCHAR, it is silently ignored. We can also specify a wildcard instead of an explicit column list. If the target_columns list is not specified, all columns of type CHAR or VARCHAR in the input are included.
  • null_values is a list of values which, if seen in any of the target_columns, must be substituted for NULL. For instance, a common string used to mark unavailable values in datasets is “N/A” and “not found”. Saying NULLS("N/A", "not found") will replace all occurence of the strings with NULL in the output.
  • limit is the number of rows that the operator should see before it decides on the column types. If not specified, all input rows will be scanned to infer the column types, and then a second scan will cast the values in each row to the inferred types.

As an example, the following statement infers the types of the columns in the input file input.csv by looking at the first data row, and then casts all values to the inferred types on the fly as they are read from the file.

EXTERNAL CSV("input.csv") TYPEINFER(LIMIT 1)

Automatic type inference discussed above works well when the input values (strings) contain the data in a standardised format that can be easily parsed. Integers and floating point numbers have standardized format, so running TYPEINFER on a CSV file containing only numeric values works well.

However, dates and times come in all sorts of formats; TYPEINFER only understands the standard formats such as “2016-01-06 09:15:59.0”. Anything non-standard, such as “08/01”, and TYPEINFER will not know how to parse (actually, neither will a human - does “08/01” mean Jan 8 or Aug 1?). This is where the TEXT PARSE clause discussed next becomes useful.

Text Parsing

Test parsing involves parsing the values in an input column to generate one or more columns in the output.

The syntax is:

table_expression TEXT PARSE ( pattern ) IN input_column TO target_columns

where:

  • table_expression is an arbitrary table expression
  • patterns is a Java regular expression, containing one or more capturing groups, which are subpatterns enclosed in parenthesis
  • input_column is a column in the output of the table_expression, of type CHAR or VARCHAR
  • target_columns is a list of column names, one for each capturing group in the pattern; each column in the list is associated with a capturing group, in order of occurrence

For each row in the output of table_expression (the “input row”), the operator parses the string in the column input_column using the specified patern.

The output consists of all columns values in the input row, augmented with new columns of type VARCHAR, with names specified in the target_columns, containing the substrings extracted by matching the capturing groups in order.

For instance, consider a table input_table with data as follows:

id | month
---+------
1  | '1/86'
2  | '2/86'

Then, the following statement parses the string in column month in each row, separating the numbers before and after the / and places them in result columns m and y respectively.

input_table TEXT parse "(\d+)/(\d+)" IN month TO (m, y)

The result is:

id | m   | y
---+-----+----
1  | '1' | '86'
2  | '2' | '86'

The type of columns m and y is VARCHAR; they can be cast to INT if needed.

Data Imputation

Consider a dataset with missing values in a column. A missing value is assumed as represented by NULL in the following discussion.

Data imputation involves filling in the missing values with reasonable estimates. In this section, we describe the ways in which data imputation can be done in Sclera.

Data Imputation with Regular SQL

In the simplest case, we may want to fill in the missing data with a constant, or an value we know how to compute.

This can be done using a trivial application of the COALESCE function. The CASE expression is more general, in that it allws you to fill in values conditionally.

The harder case is when you do not know how to compute the value to fill in; this is discussed next.

Data Imputation using Machine Learning

Recall that classifiers learn how to compute the value of a given column (target) given the values of other columns in a row.

The idea behind the machine learning approach to data imputation is to:

  • Train a classifier on clean dataset. This clean dataset could be a subset of the input dataset, containing rows with all values available. Or, it could be a reference dataset available independently.
  • Apply the classifier to the rows with missing values of the classifier’s target column. This will generate estimates for the missing values.

The syntax is as follows:

table_expression IMPUTED WITH classifier_name ( target_column ) [ FLAG flag_column ) ]

where:

  • table_expression is an arbitrary table expression
  • classifier_name is the name of classifier, already trained on a clean subset of the given dataset
  • target_column is the column containing the missing values, which need to be estimated and filled in
  • flag_column is an optional column name – if specified, a column of this name in the result will contain a value true if the target_column was originally NULL and is now filled with an estimated value, or false otherwise.

Related Documentation